By George Wuerthner
A growing debate has serious consequences for our collective relationship to Nature. Beginning perhaps twenty years ago, a number of academics in disciplines such as history, anthropology, and geography, began to question whether there was any tangible wilderness or wild lands left on Earth. These academics, and others, have argued that humans have so completely modified the Earth, we should give up on the notion that there is anyplace wild and instead recognize that we have already domesticated, in one fashion or another, the entire planet for human benefit.
These individuals and groups are identified under an umbrella of different labels, including “Neo Greens”, “Pragmatic Environmentalists” “New Conservationists” “Green Postmodernism” and “Neo-environmentalists” but the most inclusive label to date is “Anthropocene Boosters” so that is the term I will use in this essay.
The basic premise of their argument is that humans have lived everywhere except Antarctica and that it is absurd to suggest that Nature exists independent of human influences. Wilderness was, just like everything else on Earth, a human cultural construct—that does not exist outside of the human mind (1). With typical human hubris, Anthropocene Boosters suggest we need a new name for our geological age that recognizes the human achievement instead of the outmoded Holocene.
Not only do these critics argue that humans now influence Nature to the point there is no such things as an independent “Nature”, but we have a right and obligation to manage the Earth as if it were a giant garden waiting for human exploitation (2). Of course, there are many others, from politicians to religious leaders to industry leaders, who hold the same perspective, but what is different about most Anthropocene Boosters is that they suggest they are promoting ideas that ultimately will serve humans and nature better.
From this beginning, numerous other critiques of wilderness and wildness have added to the chorus. Eventually these ideas found a responsive home in some of the largest corporate conservation organizations like The Nature Conservancy as well as some think tanks like the Breakthrough Institute (3), Long Now Foundation (4), The Reason Foundation (5), and others.
The Anthropocene Boosters make a number of assertions.
1. Pristine Wilderness never existed, or if it did, is now gone. Making wilderness protection the primary goal of conservation is a failed strategy.
2. The idea that Nature is fragile an exaggeration. Nature is resilient.
3. Conservation must serve human needs and aspirations, and do so by promoting growth and development.
4. Managing for “ecosystem services”, not biodiversity protection, should be the primary goal of conservation.
5. Conservation efforts should be focused on human modified or “working landscapes” not creating new strictly protected areas like national parks, wilderness reserves and the like. Wildlands protection is passe.
6. Corporations are key to conservation efforts, so conservationists should partner with corporate interests rather than criticize capitalism or industry.
7. In order to garner support for these positions, conservation strategies like creation of national parks and other reserves are attacked as “elitism” or “cultural imperialism” or “colonialism.” (6)
Many holding these viewpoints seem to relish the idea that humans are finally “masters of the Earth”. They celebrate technology and the “path of progress” and believe it will lead to a new promised land where Nature is increasingly bent to human desires, while human poverty is alleviated. For instance, Stewart Brand, of Whole Earth Catalog fame, embraces the idea of altering evolution with genetic modifications of species by “tweaking” gene pools. (7)
These trends and philosophical ideas are alarming to some of us who work in conservation. The implications of these goals and observations imply no limits upon consumption that is destroying the planet’s ecosystems and contributing to a massive Sixth Extinction of species. Whether intentional or not, these ideas justify our current rapacious approach that celebrates economic and development growth.
These ideas represent the techno-optimism of a glorious future, where biotech, geoengineering, nuclear power, among other “solutions” to current environmental problems save us from ourselves.
Many Anthropocene Boosters believe expansion of economic opportunities is the only way to bring much of the world’s population out of poverty. This is a happy coincidence for global industry and developers because they now have otherwise liberal progressive voices leading the charge for greater domestication of the Earth. But whether the ultimate goals are humane or not, these proposals appear to dismiss any need for limits on human population growth, consumption, and manipulation of the planet.
Many of those advocating the Anthropocene Booster world view either implicitly or explicitly see the Earth as a giant garden that we must “steward” (original root from “keeper of the sty” or caretaker of domestic livestock) the land. In other words, we must domesticate the planet to serve human ends.
But the idea of commodifying Nature for economic and population growth is morally bankrupt. It seeks only to legitimize human manipulations and exploitation and ultimately is a threat to even human survival.
Our book, Keeping the Wild—Against the Domestication of the Earth, explains why this is so. It advocates a smaller human footprint where wild Nature thrives and humans manage ourselves rather than attempt to manage the planet.
However let us take these assertions one by one.
First is the Anthropocene Booster’s assertion that “pristine” wilderness never existed, and even if it did, wilderness is now gone. Boosters never define what exactly they mean by wilderness, but their use of “pristine” suggests that they define a wilderness as a place that no human has ever touched or trod (8).
That sense of total human absence is not how wilderness advocates define a wild place. Rather, the concept of a wilderness has much more to do with the degree of human influence. Because humans have lived in all landscapes except Antarctica does not mean the human influence is uniformly distributed. Wilderness is viewed as places largely influenced by natural forces, rather than dominated by human manipulation and presence. Downtown Los Angeles is without a doubt a human-influenced landscape, but a place like Alaska’s Arctic Wildlife Refuge is certainly not significantly manipulated or controlled by humans. Though certainly low numbers of humans have hunted, camped, and otherwise occupied small portions of the refuge for centuries, the degree of human presence and modification is small. The Alaska Refuge lands are, most wilderness advocates would argue, self-willed. By such a definition, there are many parts of the world that are to one degree or another largely “self-willed”.
Nature is resilient
Peter Kareiva, The Nature Conservancy’s Chief Scientist, is one of the more outspoken proponents of the idea that Nature is not fragile, but resilient. Kareiva says “In many circumstances, the demise of formerly abundant species can be inconsequential to ecosystem function.” He cites as an example the loss of the passenger pigeon, once so abundant that its flocks darkened the sky, whose demise, according to Kareiva, had “no catastrophic or even measurable effects.”
Stewart Brand also sees no problem with extinction. Brand recently wrote “The frightening extinction statistics that we hear are largely an island story, and largely a story of the past, because most island species that were especially vulnerable to extinction are already gone.” (10)
Indeed Brand almost celebrates the threats to global species because he suggests that it will increase evolution, including biodiversity in the long run.
Such a cavalier attitude towards the demise of species, and the normalizing of species declines, undermines the efforts of many conservation organizations to preclude these human-caused extinctions.
Many biologists disagree with Brand and the authors he references. They believe we are on the verge of a Sixth Mass Extinction. There have been other extinctions, but this is a preventable mass extinction. We know it is occurring and the cause of this extinction spiral is human-domination of the Earth and its resources (11).
There is something callous and morally bankrupt in asserting that it is OK for humans to knowingly drive species to extinction. There seems to be no expression of loss or grief that we are now pushing many species towards extinction. Humans have survived the Black Plague, the Holocaust, and many other losses over the centuries, but one doesn’t celebrate these losses.
Conservation must serve human needs
Another pillar of the Anthropocene Boosters platform is that conservation’s main purpose must be to enhance and provide for human needs and desires. Of course, one consequence of conservation is that protected landscapes nearly always provide for human needs—contributing clean water, biodiversity conservation (if you think that is important), moderation of climate change, to name a few.
However, the main rationale for conservation should surely be much broader and inclusive. Despite the fact that most conservation efforts do have human utilitarian value, the ultimate measurement of value ought to be how well conservation serves the needs of the other species we share the planet with.
The problem with Anthropocene Boosters promotion of growth and development is that most species losses are due to habitat losses. Without reigning in population and development, plants and animals face a grim future with less and less habitat, not to mention changes in their habitat that makes survival difficult if not impossible.
Even when species do not go extinct, the diminishment of their ecological effects can also lead to biological impoverishment, for instance, when top predators are eliminated from ecosystems.
Conservation should focus on “working landscapes” not creation of more parks and wilderness
The term “working landscapes” was invented by the timber industry to put a positive spin on their rapacious operations. Americans, in particular, look favorably upon the “work ethic” and industry coined the phrase to capitalize on that affirmative cultural perspective. Working landscapes are typically lands exploited for economic development including logging, livestock grazing, and farming.
While almost no conservationists would deny that there is vast room for improvement in these exploited landscapes, the general scientific consensus is that parks, wilderness reserves and other lands where human exploitation is restricted provide greater protection of ecosystems and biodiversity.
For this reason, many scientists, including such eminent biologists as Harvard biologist, E.O. Wilson, are calling for protecting half of the Earth’s terrestrial landscapes as parks and other reserves.
Conservationists should stop criticising corporations
Some Anthropocene Boosters believe conservationists should stop criticizing corporations and work with them to implement more environmentally friendly programs and operations.
Almost no conservationist would argue that corporate entities should not adopt less destructive practices. However, it is overdevelopment that is the ultimate threat to all life, including our own. Implementing so called “sustainable” practices may slow the degradation of the Earth’s ecosystems and species decline, but most such proposals only create “lesser unsustainable” operations.
At a fundamental level, the promise of endless growth on a finite planet is a dead end street, and it is important for conservationists to continuously harp upon that message. To halt criticisms of corporations invites greenwashing, and precludes any effective analysis of the ultimate problems of development and growth.
National parks and reserves are a form of cultural imperialism
Many Anthropocene Boosters, in order to validate their particular view of the world, go beyond merely criticizing environmental and conservation strategies. They seek to delegitimize parks and other wild lands protection efforts by branding them with pejorative terms like “cultural imperialisms”, “colonialism” and other words that vilify protected lands.
The creation of parks and protected areas began with Yellowstone National Park in 1872 (or arguably Yosemite, which was a state park earlier). The general Anthropocene Boosters theme is that this model has been “exported” and emulated around the world and that Western nations are forcing parks upon the poor at the expense of their economic future.
Notwithstanding that nearly all cultures have some concept of sacred lands or places that are off limits to normal exploitation, to denigrate the idea of parks and wildlands reserves as “Imperialism” because it originated in the United States is crass. It is no different than trying to scorn democracy as Greek imperialism because many countries now aspire to adopt democratic institutions. Western countries also “export” other ideas, like human rights, racial equality and other values, and few question whether these ideas represent “imperialism.”
Of course, one of the reasons protected areas are so widely adopted is because they ultimately are better at protecting ecosystems and wildlife than other less protective methods.
But it is also true that strictly protected areas have not stemmed the loss of species and habitat, though in many cases, they have slowed these losses. When parks and other reserves fail to safeguard the lands they are set aside to protect, it is typically due to a host of recognized issues that conservation biologists frequently cite, including small size, lack of connecting corridors, lack of enforcement, and underfunding.
To criticize parks for this is analogous to arguing we should eliminate public schools because underfunding, lack of adequate staffing, and other well publicized problems often result in less than desirable educational outcomes. Just as the problem is not with the basic premise of public education, nor are the well-publicized difficulties for parks a reason to jettison them as a foundation for conservation strategies.
Another criticism is that strictly-protected parks and other reserves harm local economic and sometimes subsistence activities. In reality that is what parks and other reserves are designed to do. The reason we create strictly protected areas is that on-going resource exploitation does harm wildlife and ecosystems or we would not need parks or other reserves in the first place.
While park creation may occasionally disrupt local use of resources, we regularly condone or at least accept the disruption and losses associated with much more damaging developments. The Three Gorges Dam in China displaced millions of people. Similar development around the world has displaced and impinged upon indigenous peoples everywhere. Indeed, in the absence of protected areas, many landscapes are ravaged by logging, ranching, oil and gas, mining and other resource developers, often to the ultimate detriment of local peoples and of course the ecosystems they depend upon. In the interest of fairness, however, people severely impacted should be compensated in some way.
Nevertheless it should also be recognized that the benefits of parks and other wildlands reserves are nearly always perpetual, while logging the forest, killing off wildlife, and other alternatives are usually less permanent sources of economic viability.
The Wild does have economic and other benefits for human well-being. However, the ultimate rationale for “Keeping the Wild” is the realization there are intangible and intrinsic value to protecting Nature. Keeping the Wild is about self-restraint and self-discipline. By setting aside parks and other reserves, we, as a society and a species, are making a statement that we recognize that we have a moral obligation to protect other lifeforms. And while we may have the capability to influence the planet and its biosphere, we lack the wisdom to do so in a manner that does not harm.
Keeping the Wild: Against the Domestication of the Earth is a new book edited by George Wuerthner, Eileen Crist, and Tom Butler. In bringing together essays in one volume, we seek to examine and challenge the assumptions and epistemology underlying the Anthropocene Booster’s world view. We seek to offer another way forward that seeks to preserve wildness, wildlands, and Nature and ultimately a co-existence that emphasizes humility and gratitude towards this planet—our only home.
List of people, corporate partners, key words, strategies, and concepts.
(1) Cronon, William The Trouble with Wilderness in Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (1995)
(2) Marris, Emma (2011). Rambunctious Garden. Bloomsbury NY.
(3) Breakthrough Institute
(4) The Long Now Foundation
(5) Ronald Bailey 2011 The Myth of Pristine Nature.
(6) Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier and Robert Lalasz Conservation in the Anthropocene.
(7) Steward (Brand 2015) Rethinking Extinction.
(8) Interview with Emma Marris.
(9) Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier and Robert Lalasz Conservation in the Anthropocene.
(10) Stewart Brand (2015) Rethinking Extinction.
(11) Brian Miller, Michael Soulé, and John Terborgh, The “New Conservation’s” Surrender to Development.
George Wuerthner is Ecological Projects Director of the Foundation for Deep Ecology
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It was not a difficult problem for the early colonizing companies in North America to see their ideology as being for “The Chosen Ones”. But this did not include the native dwellers or “savages” as their ideology would have them.
So given that label within the ideology, it was not hard to see the native Indian as an expendable species.
Thank you for a wonderful article and providing me with a wonderful insight!
I was reading the other day where it was stated, “Capitalism Is The New Religion”.
Now I can see the light….
Unfortunately, the creation of the Yosemite and Yellowstone parks involved the clearing of native Americans from those areas, and so were part of the colonization of the American West.
We need to start thinking of “wild” not as a collection of species uncontrolled by humans, but rather as a process. A tree is not just a beautiful column of cellulose, but a factory run by thousands of microbes in the soil that provide nutrients, ultimately allowing the tree to consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Humans cannot replicate these processes, but we are very good at destroying them. We need protected wild places not just as places to save our souls, clean our water, produce our oxygen, but to safeguard the processes that create and sustain life and ultimately allow it to evolve. I would agree that most places on earth have been touched by humans, and even the wildest places are now subject to the noise, light, and air pollution that spreads around the globe. Many species are gone, and we’ll never know what ecological roles were played by mammoths or passenger pigeons. But in many places, the basic ecological processes of production and decomposition are still functional and need to be preserved.
1) the author conflates two incompatible camps, the capitalist advocates of economic-‘growth’-as-the-cure-all and the anti-imperialists who considers humans to be an integral part of nature, in his big category of “postmodern environmentalists” or “anthropocene boosters”.
2) the wilderness conservancy movement that insists on “pristine nature” without humans in the Amazon is indeed an extension of the western ideological imperialism. why doesn’t the author push for the restoration of half the USA into the pre-industrial “pristine wilderness” before preaching to latin america?
3) some have convincingly argued that the “savage” natives “manage” the “wilderness” much more successfully by participating in the natural processes than the “civilized” Ted-Rooseveltian conservationists have ever been able to by keeping humans out of the “pristine wilderness”.
4) we should either keep all human activities out of the “nature” or exploit the nature for short-term human utilitarian gains is a false dichotomy.
Thanks for this article and for the anthology, Keeping the Wild. I would add simply that where the imperialism lies is precisely in U.S. and global capitalist imperialism. For the Capitalist Class and its “pragmatic environmentalists” or “Anthropocene Boosters” to imagine imperialism as residing within truly grassroots and Real Green environmentalists is a strikingly obvious mechanism of projection: that psychoanalytic notion that what one cannot bear to recognize in oneself gets projected onto or into someone else, imagining that person or group as containing what is denied within oneself. For the interested reader, Sally Weintrobe’s (2012) book, Engaging With Climate Change: Psychoanalytic And Interdisciplinary Perspectives, addresses such psychoanalytic points. And I agree with George Wuerthner here that conservationists must highlight the point, repressed by the dominant culture and its media-corporate complex, that “the promotion of endless growth on a finite planet is a dead end street.”
You’ve made no attempt to refute the criticism of “imperialism” by accusing “anthropocene boosters” of “projecting”, you just assume it has no basis. Whenever a project privileges the views and wishes of an outside group over those of a disadvantaged local population, it has a “colonial” aspect: it is perfectly possible that this could apply to the activities of both “sides” at times.
The Anthropocene Boosterism that Wuerthner describes has also been pejoratively labeled “Anthropofascism.” (http://anthropofascism.com/)
Slightly less pejorative is the label “Extremist Humanism.” These styles of argumentation have become deeply embedded in the academic left and, more expectedly, among the neoliberal developmentalists.
Are the caricatures of Cronon and Marris’ arguments in this article made by the more simple-minded of the “Anthropocene Boosters”, or did Wuerthner come up with these straw men himself?
“Wilderness” is a concept that has to be defined, which represents physical environments. The CONCEPT of wilderness is culturally dependent and doesn’t exist outside the human mind, but so what? You can still value the physical environments that the concept represents.
Marris recognises that we have had a huge influence over almost all of the biosphere, that there are dangers in privileging “pristine” environments over “compromised” ones, and that we can value nature in a more inclusive way. In the concluding chapter of Rambunctious Garden, Marris sets out a “menu” of seven “new goals” that we might have for a given area, to “mix and match” as is appropriate. It is worth listing them in full:
1. Protect the rights of other species
2. Protect charismatic megafauna
3. Slow the rate of extinctions
4. Protect genetic diversity
5. Define and defend biodiversity
6. Maximize ecosystem services
7. Protect the spiritual and aesthetic experience of nature
The numbering of the items is not intended to be an order of priority, but the fact that there are five intrinsic goals first, followed by two anthropocentric ones, only one of which is concerned with the direct exploitation of nature, is instructive: the conclusion of her book is not a clarion call to “manage the Earth as if it were a giant garden waiting for human exploitation”.
What about the “cultural imperialism” critiques? “US Model” national parks are a cultural ideal that are sometimes imposed regardless of the feelings, needs or conflicting cultural ideals of resident populations. It is the imposition that makes it an “imperial” or “colonial” act, not the fact that the concept first arose in an “imperial power”, the US.
Wuerthner does not serve his argument well in bringing up Yellowstone and Yosemite. To quote William Cronon in The Trouble with Wilderness:
The movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas followed hard on the heels of the final Indian wars, in which the prior human inhabitants of these areas were rounded up and moved onto reservations. The myth of the wilderness as “virgin” uninhabited land had always been especially cruel when seen from the perspective of the Indians who had once called that land home.
In more recent times, indigenous people have been cleared from areas that they have lived in for centuries to make way for parks. They were imperial or colonial projects in more than just a cultural sense.
I’ve not read the other stuff that Wuerthner rails against, but I’d be surprised if he’d tackled them in the spirit of honest, robust debate, given his treatment of Cronon and Marris.
The essay finishes: “And while we may have the capability to influence the planet and its biosphere, we lack the wisdom to do so in a manner that does not harm.” This implies that we have the option to NOT influence the planet. To have any hope of that, we’d have to stop growing food, drawing water, building shelters and shitting for a start. “The Anthropocene” began as a realisation that humankind fundamentally influence the earth’s systems and we have been for a while; a kind of wake-up call that we’d better sharpen up what we’re doing before we drive the whole thing off a cliff. I think it’s a useful concept, and I don’t think that makes me an “Anthropocene Booster”, full of “human hubris”.
Cronon doesn’t deserve “honest” debate. He’s a hack — he throws rhetorical bombs and calls the resultant explosion a debate. He’s done an incredible disservice to wilderness conservation, which is truly one of America’s best ideas.
Your comment has nothing to say whatsoever about the argument of Cronon’s I quoted, which could be debated its own merits. Even if you demonstrated that Cronon is a hack, that would not make any argument he advanced ipso facto nonsense; and you didn’t even do that, just made a flat statement.
If you want to join a debate, debate!
correction – *debated on it’s own merits*
Superb article, thanks.
the main argument against this stupidity is the number of bear attacks that occur in Alaska alone. Park these folks outside a fenced campsite up here for a month and note how many still believe that.